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Graphitization of polymer surfaces
We can convert any polymer surface into a conducting state.
This is done by graphitization using low-energy ion bombardement.
Fig.1: Free-standing films of graphitized PMMA [
The graphitized surfaces with the highest conductance even show semi-metallic behavior.
Fig.2: Room temperature sheet conductance of irradiated polymers vs. the universal variable C=T
Fig.3: Conductance vs. temperature of graphitized polyimide. The numbers correspond to the ones on the left side. [
Fig.4: Scanning tunneling microscopy of graphitized polyimide with single-atom resolution [
] I. Lazareva, Y. Koval, M. Alam, S. Strömsdörfer, and P. Müller, Graphitization of polymer surfaces by low-energy ion irradiation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 (2007) 262108.